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Application Status of Sensor Application Technology in Automobiles

Date: 2013-11-30
Viewed: 34
案例名称: Application Status of Sensor Application Technology in Automobiles

In the era of rapid development of electronic technology, automotive control systems are gradually moving toward electronic control systems, and the most important one of these electronic control systems is sensor application technology. In the sensor market, traditional sensors are gradually being phased out. The current state of the art is an intelligent, multi-functional, miniaturized, integrated sensor, and this sensor will gradually become an indispensable part of automotive sensors.


Since the German Carl Mercedes developed the world's first car in 1885, the car has gradually become an indispensable means of transportation in people's lives. However, in today's era of rapid development of science and technology and progressive social progress, the control system of automobiles has gradually turned to electronic control systems. Such vehicles are called electronic vehicles. The most important one of the control systems of such electronic vehicles is the application of sensors. Technology, a high-end sensor, will gradually become an essential part of the automotive control system.


1 Application status of sensor application technology in automobiles

传感器应用技术在汽车上的应用现状

An important technical feature of automotive development today is the increasing use of electronic control systems for the components that make up the car. But as long as it is the use of electronic control systems, the existence of sensors is essential, such as car GPS navigation, automatic transmissions, engines and so on. The car uses sensors to accurately and real-time control and measure various useful information such as pressure, intake air volume, acceleration, position, vibration, speed, temperature, etc. of the vehicle system, which can greatly improve the comfort of the car. It plays a key role in the safe driving of cars. Nowadays, the four sensors of pressure, intake air volume, speed and temperature are used to illustrate the application status of sensor application technology in automobiles.


1.1 Pressure sensor


During the driving process, many parts are subject to stress during work. The main function of the pressure sensor is to detect oil pressure, cylinder pressure, turbine engine boost ratio, atmospheric pressure, cylinder negative pressure, etc. The main purpose of detecting these is to ensure the safe and normal driving of the car. The pressure sensor converts the pressure of the liquid or gas into an electrical signal that is passed to the ECU for easy control and monitoring.


In automotive electronic control systems, pressure sensors come in two forms—piezoresistive—resistance strain gauge pressure sensors and semiconductor piezoresistive effect pressure sensors. At higher pressures, resistance strain gauge pressure sensors are generally used. In contrast, when the pressure is low, a semiconductor piezoresistive effect pressure sensor is generally used. In addition to these two types, the car also uses SAW (surface elastic wave type), LVDT (differential transformer type), and capacitive type when using the pressure sensor. The SAW pressure sensor is characterized by high digital output, high resolution, high sensitivity, high reliability, low power consumption, light weight and small size. It can work stably under high temperature conditions and can detect the pressure of the suction valve of the car. It is an ideal pressure sensor. The LVDT pressure sensor is characterized by easy digital output, large output, and poor anti-interference. The capacitive type force sensor is characterized by good environmental adaptability, good dynamic response characteristics, and high input energy. It can detect air pressure, hydraulic pressure and negative pressure, and the measurement range is 20-100 kPa.


1.2 Intake sensor


In automotive electronic control system devices, the intake air sensor is used to detect the amount of air that the engine can draw in. The main parameters determined by the engine basic ignition advance angle and the basic fuel amount are the engine speed and the intake air amount. The amount of intake air has a large impact on the operation of the engine. When the vehicle uses the intake air sensor, there are Karman vortex, hot wire, hot film, vane, etc., and the intake air sensor is generally installed between the throttle body and the air cleaner. The methods that the engine can use to detect the amount of air intake are the speed density method, the mass flow method, and the like. The method that is often used today is mass retention. The principle of this method is to measure the amount of air taken in directly using an air flow meter. The calculated standard is the ratio of the measured air flow to the upper engine speed.


1.3 Speed sensor


The most representative of the sensors is the speed sensor, which detects the speed of the wheel and the crankshaft speed of the engine, from which the speed of the car can be derived. The main parameters determined by the engine basic ignition advance angle and the basic fuel amount are the engine speed and the intake air amount. The speed will have a big impact on the operation of the engine. At present, when the car uses the speed sensor, there are semiconductor magnetic transistor type, optical type, reed switch type, Hall effect type, magnetoresistive type, alternator type and the like. There are many types of speed sensors, such as the rotation of the sensitive power transmission shaft, the rotation of the sensitive differential driven shaft, and the rotation of the sensitive wheel. When the vehicle speed is greater than 100km/h, the general measurement method will have a large error. At this time, it is necessary to use a non-contact photoelectric speed sensor, which has high precision and small error.


1.4 Temperature sensor


The role of the temperature sensor is to detect the catalytic temperature, fuel temperature, cooling water temperature, suction gas temperature, engine temperature, and the like. When a car uses a temperature sensor, it has three types: a thermocouple resistance type, a thermistor type, and a wire wound resistance type. The thermocouple resistance temperature sensor is characterized by a wide range of temperature measurement and high precision, but the cold end treatment is used together with a magnifying glass. The thermistor temperature sensor is characterized by good response characteristics and high sensitivity, but the temperature is relatively low and the linearity is poor. Wirewound resistance temperature sensors are characterized by high accuracy but poor response characteristics. Temperature sensors that have been put to practical use on the market include metal or semiconductor film air temperature sensors, ferrite temperature sensors, and thermistor temperature sensors.


2 Trends in sensor application technology in automobiles


In today's society, when people choose a car, they pay attention to the function, energy saving, environmental protection and safety of the car, and this demand is constantly improving. Therefore, an electronic control system is widely popular in automotive applications, and the development direction of such electronic facilities is intelligent, multifunctional, miniaturized, and integrated. Due to electricity


The continuous development of the sub-control system has led to the continuous improvement of the sensor. Its development trend is basically the same as that of the electronic equipment, and it is also intelligent, multi-functional, miniaturized and integrated. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new type of sensor with low cost, high reliability and high precision.


2.1 Development of new sensors


The important basis of the sensor is the material of the sensor. One of the development trends of the sensor is to manufacture a sensor with good performance with complicated materials. In recent sensor research, the material changes are mainly: the use of magnetic materials, smart materials, ceramic materials, semiconductor sensitive materials, synthetic atomic molecular materials; single-type materials are converted into composite materials, single-crystal materials are converted to non- Crystal material, polycrystalline material. In the further development of materials, we should also explore new materials with sensitive effects, and strive to achieve low cost and high performance.


2.2 Intelligent sensor


The intelligentization of the sensor refers to the good integration of the microprocessor into the sensor, enabling the sensor to have information processing and detection functions. The intelligentization of the sensor generally integrates a series of peripheral circuits such as driving circuit, processing and detection of signals on a substrate, so that the sensor can have some new functions such as self-adaptation, self-diagnosis, logic judgment, and data processing. . The sensor that has been processed and processed can not only provide the signal to be processed and simulated, but also can perform automatic time drift of information, self-correction of nonlinearity and temperature drift, amplification of signal, and strong anti-electromagnetic interference. The ability to guarantee the signal quality of the sensor provides very high precision. The smart sensor is characterized by its ease of use, suitable for large-volume production, small size, high performance and many functions.


2.3 Multi-functional, integrated sensor


As the field of application of sensors continues to expand, semiconductor assembly technology, precision machining, lithography, diffusion technology, evaporation technology, and the like are also required. From single component, single function to multi-functional, integrated development. The basis of multi-functionality is integration, and integration refers to the integration of conversion components, information processing, power supply circuit components, and sensitive components on a single chip using semiconductor processing technology.


2.4 Miniaturized sensor


The miniaturization of sensors refers to the integration of micron-level data processing devices, signal conditioners, and sensitive components on a single chip by micromachining technology. Miniaturized sensors are characterized by ease of integration, low cost, and small size, so the accuracy of the test can be greatly improved. What can be produced at present is a miniaturized sensor capable of detecting and sensitive biomass, chemical quantity, thermal quantity, magnetic quantity, and mechanical quantity. Therefore, the miniaturization of sensors has great market prospects.


3 Conclusion


One of the core contents of automotive electronic control system research is sensor application technology, and it is constantly developing towards intelligent, multi-functional, miniaturization and integration. Automobile sensors have great market prospects.


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